Understand WSGI Interface and Request Context in Flask

Posted on with tags: WSGI / flask

The Flask class is defined in the app.py module. The class has a __call__ method defined on Line 2460 (Flask version 1.1.2). If you have an object app that is an instance of Flask class, you can treat the object as a function (or callable). When you call the object app(...), it will actually run the code in __call__ method.

The __call__ method in Flask class is simply calling another method wsgi_app, which I will discuss in this article. The code in the method is not long (list below) because it just calls a few other methods.

def wsgi_app(self, environ, start_response):
    ctx = self.request_context(environ)
    error = None
            response = self.full_dispatch_request()
        except Exception as e:
            error = e
            response = self.handle_exception(e)
        except:  # noqa: B001
            error = sys.exc_info()[1]
        return response(environ, start_response)
        if self.should_ignore_error(error):
            error = None

If you ignore the exception handling code for a minute, the code is not too difficult to understand.

Let’s look the first line of the method in detail.

ctx = self.request_context(environ)

The request_context method is defined on Line 2345, and the method is returning a RequestContext object. Notice the first argument to the RequestContext constructor is self, which is an instance of the Flask class.

def request_context(self, environ):
    return RequestContext(self, environ)

The RequestContext class is defined on Line 255 of the ctx.py module. The first sentence of the class documentation states that “the request context contains all request relevant information”. Let’s look at the instance variables defined in __init__ method.

  • self.app
  • self.request
  • self.url_adapter
  • self.flashes
  • self.session
  • self.preserved = False

The class defines a property g for easy access to the variable on the app stack. The main methods of the class are push and pop defined on Lines 355 and 398. To better understand those two methods, you can read Patrick Kennedy’s article. The interesting part of push method is that session is part of the request context object and is initialized here. The _request_ctx_stack object is a global variable defined in global.py module.

def push(self):
    app_ctx = _app_ctx_stack.top
    if app_ctx is None or app_ctx.app != self.app:
        app_ctx = self.app.app_context()

    if hasattr(sys, "exc_clear"):


    if self.session is None:
        session_interface = self.app.session_interface
        self.session = session_interface.open_session(self.app, self.request)

        if self.session is None:
            self.session = session_interface.make_null_session(self.app)

    if self.url_adapter is not None:

I will stop here for now and look at other code in wsgi_app at a later time.